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Essential Fatty Acids (EFAs) and Health:

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Old 11-15-2006, 06:13 PM   #11
mrsD
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Lightbulb DHA and lower Alzheimer's risk:

Here is an article from PsychCentral:

http://psychcentral.com/news/2006/11...zheimers-risk/
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Old 11-15-2006, 09:58 PM   #12
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Smile you are correct -mrsd

Sorry about the typo. I did mean to say Vit A - not Vit D. I am so involved with this Vit. D issue as well i just got confused in the post. You certainly pick up on everything Good Job! I appreciate your attention to detail and efficency as well as your knowledge base.
Thanks, Sydney
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Old 11-28-2006, 04:26 PM   #13
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Post jcc has found some nice nutrition papers...

I found this one linked to the others she just posted here on another thread:
Quote:
J Nutr Health Aging. 2004;8(3):163-74. Links
Roles of unsaturated fatty acids (especially omega-3 fatty acids) in the brain at various ages and during ageing.

* Bourre JM.

INSERM Research Director. Unit U26 Neuro-pharmaco-nutrition. Hopital Fernand Widal, 200 rue du Faubourg Saint Denis. 75745 Paris cedex 10. jean-marie.bourre@fwidal.inserm.fr

Among various organs, in the brain, the fatty acids most extensively studied are omega-3 fatty acids. Alpha-linolenic acid (18:3omega3) deficiency alters the structure and function of membranes and induces minor cerebral dysfunctions, as demonstrated in animal models and subsequently in human infants. Even though the brain is materially an organ like any other, that is to say elaborated from substances present in the diet (sometimes exclusively), for long it was not accepted that food can have an influence on brain structure, and thus on its function.

Lipids, and especially omega-3 fatty acids, provided the first coherent experimental demonstration of the effect of diet (nutrients) on the structure and function of the brain. In fact the brain, after adipose tissue, is the organ richest in lipids, whose only role is to participate in membrane structure. First it was shown that the differentiation and functioning of cultured brain cells requires not only alpha-linolenic acid (the major component of the omega-3, omega3 family), but also the very long omega-3 and omega-6 carbon chains (1). It was then demonstrated that alpha-linolenic acid deficiency alters the course of brain development, perturbs the composition and physicochemical properties of brain cell membranes, neurones, oligodendrocytes, and astrocytes (2).This leads to physicochemical modifications, induces biochemical and physiological perturbations, and results in neurosensory and behavioural upset (3).

Consequently, the nature of polyunsaturated fatty acids (in particular omega-3) present in formula milks for infants (premature and term) conditions the visual and cerebral abilities, including intellectual. Moreover, dietary omega-3 fatty acids are certainly involved in the prevention of some aspects of cardiovascular disease (including at the level of cerebral vascularization), and in some neuropsychiatric disorders, particularly depression, as well as in dementia, notably Alzheimer's disease. Recent results have shown that dietary alpha-linolenic acid deficiency induces more marked abnormalities in certain cerebral structures than in others, as the frontal cortex and pituitary gland are more severely affected. These selective lesions are accompanied by behavioural disorders more particularly affecting certain tests (habituation, adaptation to new situations). Biochemical and behavioural abnormalities are partially reversed by a dietary phospholipid supplement, especially omega-3-rich egg yolk extracts or pig brain. A dose-effect study showed that animal phospholipids are more effective than plant phospholipids to reverse the consequences of alpha-linolenic acid deficiency, partly because they provide very long preformed chains.

Alpha-linolenic acid deficiency decreases the perception of pleasure, by slightly altering the efficacy of sensory organs and by affecting certain cerebral structures. Age-related impairment of hearing, vision and smell is due to both decreased efficacy of the parts of the brain concerned and disorders of sensory receptors, particularly of the inner ear or retina. For example, a given level of perception of a sweet taste requires a larger quantity of sugar in subjects with alpha-linolenic acid deficiency. In view of occidental eating habits, as omega-6 fatty acid deficiency has never been observed, its impact on the brain has not been studied.

In contrast, omega-9 fatty acid deficiency, specifically oleic acid deficiency, induces a reduction of this fatty acid in many tissues, except the brain (but the sciatic nerve is affected). This fatty acid is therefore not synthesized in sufficient quantities, at least during pregnancy-lactation, implying a need for dietary intake. It must be remembered that organization of the neurons is almost complete several weeks before birth, and that these neurons remain for the subject's life time. Consequently, any disturbance of these neurons, an alteration of their connections, and impaired turnover of their constituents at any stage of life, will tend to accelerate ageing. The enzymatic activities of sytivities of synthesis of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids from linoleic and alpha-linolenic acids are very limited in the brain: this organ therefore depends on an exogenous supply. Consequently, fatty acids that are essential for the brain are arachidonic acid and cervonic acid, derived from the diet, unless they are synthesized by the liver from linoleic acid and alpha-linolenic acid. The age-related reduction of hepatic desaturase activities (which participate in the synthesis of long chains, together with elongases) can impair turnover of cerebral membranes. In many structures, especially in the frontal cortex, a reduction of cervonic and arachidonic acids is observed during ageing, predominantly associated with a reduction of phosphatidylethanolamines (mainly in the form of plasmalogens). Peroxisomal oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids decreases in the brain during ageing, participating in decreased turnover of membrane fatty acids, which are also less effectively protected against peroxidation by free radicals.

PMID: 15129302 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Related Links
ALA= alpha linolenic acid as found in flax oil, walnuts and canola oil.
Long chain fatty acids = DHA and EPA

from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/q..._uids=15129302
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Old 11-28-2006, 05:38 PM   #14
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Default Here is another...

from the same author. It discusses enriching foods/meat for better health.
Quote:
J Nutr Health Aging. 2005 Jul-Aug;9(4):232-42. Links
Where to find omega-3 fatty acids and how feeding animals with diet enriched in omega-3 fatty acids to increase nutritional value of derived products for human: what is actually useful ?

* Bourre JM.

Membre de l'Academie de Medecine, INSERM Neuro-pharmaco-nutrition, Hopital Fernand Widal, 200 rue du Faubourg Saint Denis, 75745 Paris cedex 10. jean-marie.bourre@fwidal.inserm.fr 43 40.

Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids have two major field of interest. The first lies in their quantitative abundance and their role in the development and maintenance of the brain. The second is their role in the prevention of different pathologies, mainly the cardiovascular diseases, and more lately some psychiatric disorders, from stress to depression and dementia. Thus, dietary omega-3 fatty acids are very important to ensure brain structure and function, more specifically during development and aging. However, concerning essential alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), most occidental diets contain about 50 % of the recommended dietary allowances.

The problem is to know which foods are naturally rich in this fatty acid, and to determine the true impact of the formulations (enriched in omega-3 fatty acids, either ALA or EPA and DHA) in chows used on farms and breeding centres on the nutritional value of the products (meat, butter, milk and dairy products, cheese, and eggs, etc), and thus their effect on the health of consumers, especially to ensure adequate quantities in the diet of the aging people. The consequences (qualitative and quantitative) of modifications in the composition of animal foods on the value of derived products consumed by humans are more marked when single-stomach animals are concerned than multi-stomach animals. Because, for example, hydrogenating intestinal bacteria of the latter group transform a large proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids in their food into saturated fatty acids, among others, thus depriving them of any biological interest.

Under the best conditions, by feeding animals with extracts of linseed and rapeseed grains for example, the level of ALA acid is increased approximately two-fold in beef and six-fold in pork, ten-fold in chicken, and forty-fold in eggs. By feeding animals with fish extracts or algae (oils) the level of DHA is increased about 2-fold in beef, 7-fold in chicken, 6-fold in eggs, and 20-fold in fish (salmon). To obtain such results, it is sufficient to respect only the physiological needs of the animal, which was generally the case with traditional methods. It is important to stress the role of fish, whose nutritional value for humans in terms of lipids (determined by omega-3 fatty acid levels) can vary considerably according to the type of fats the animals have been fed. The aim of preventing some aspects of cardiovascular disease (and other pathologies) can be achieved, or on the contrary frustrated, depending on the nature of fatty acids present in fish flesh, the direct consequence of the nature of fats with which they have been fed. It is the same for eggs, "omega- 3 eggs" being in fact similar to natural eggs, were used in the formulation of certain formula milks for infants, whose composition was closest to that of breast milk. In fact, the additional cost on the price paid by the consumer is modest compared to the considerable gain in nutritional value in terms of omega-3 fatty acids content. Interestingly, in aged people, ALA recommendations in France are increased (0.8% daily energy intake in adult, 0.9 % in aged) and DHA is multiplied by 2 (0.05 % daily energy intake in adult, 0.1 % in aged; as well as in pregnant and lactating women).

PMID: 15980924 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/q..._uids=15980924
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Old 12-05-2006, 04:41 PM   #15
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Thumbs up NYC bans transfats...

Finally... a move in the right direction for all of us...
Quote:
NY bans most transfats from restaurants
Tue Dec 5, 2006 5:42 PM GMT160
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[-] Text [+]

NEW YORK (Reuters) - New York City's board of health on Tuesday voted to phase out most artificial transfats from restaurants, forcing doughnut shops and fast-food stands to remove artery-clogging oils from their cooking.

The law will require McDonald's and other fast-food chains that have not already eliminated transfats to do so by July 2007. They will be given a six-month grace period before facing fines.

Makers of doughnuts and other baked goods will be given until July 2008 to phase out transfats.

"We know that transfats increase the chance of heart attack, stroke and death, and they don't have to be there," New York City Health Commissioner Thomas Frieden told a news conference.

Transfats increase those health risks by increasing bad cholesterol and reducing good cholesterol.

Frieden said that New York City expects to withstand any lawsuits challenging the ban, and said the action was well within the jurisdiction of the board of health.

"People are no longer dying of typhoid fever. They are dying of heart disease," Frieden said.

In a separate vote, the board of health also ordered restaurants to standardise how they display the number of calories in dishes on their menus in an effort to combat obesity.

That law, to take effect July 1, applies to restaurants that already report the calorie counts and requires them to display the numbers on menus and menu boards. It is expected to affect about 10 percent of New York City restaurants, including many fast-food establishments.
from http://today.reuters.co.uk/news/arti...orld-C3-More-8

This is important also for other neuro issues... but the media still targets cardiovascular ones. So we just ride that wave!
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Old 12-21-2006, 10:49 PM   #16
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Lightbulb A new press release on children:

Here in USA there are two prenatals now for pregnant women
that have Omega-3 technology in them. It is really a very good idea
to take advantage of them. I have posted them earlier in this thread.
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Last edited by mrsD; 01-29-2014 at 08:00 PM. Reason: removing expired link
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Old 04-11-2007, 12:36 AM   #17
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My Mood: Essential Fatty Acids (EFAs) and Health:
Default

mrsd
Can I be getting to much flax oil? I take a capsul of 1000mg per day , grind 3 heaping tablespoons of flax seed for cereal each morning and on occasion eat Smart Balance Peanut butter?

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Old 04-17-2007, 12:38 AM   #18
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Default Flax

MRSD

Thanks for the info and reading material source on flax. It is very complete detail. It will give me the info I was looking for to undersatand the correct amounts of flax.


Thanks for having the forum. It is very good and helpful.

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Old 05-02-2007, 06:36 PM   #19
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Lightbulb new information for new Moms and Omega-3s....

DocJohn just posted this in the Health News forum... It is very interesting:

http://www.emaxhealth.com/25/11654.html

This is the full article and quite technical. But very interesting none the less.

http://www.internationalbreastfeedin.../content/2/1/6
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Old 07-06-2007, 08:16 AM   #20
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Default I am bumping this up with a new discovery:

At the doctor's office yesterday I found an article about trans fat intake,
and infertility.

Here is an article.
http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/16695792/
I will quote it all, since links often die:
Quote:
Eating trans fats may increase infertility risk
Hydrogenated oils hinder cell receptor tied to fertility, study finds


NEW YORK - Women who want to get pregnant may want to stay away from fast food french fries not just to avoid putting on some extra pounds, a new study shows.

The more trans fats a woman eats, the more likely she is to be infertile, Dr. Jorge E. Chavarro of the Harvard School of Public Health in Boston and colleagues found.

Trans fats are found in fried foods, packaged snacks, commercial baked goods and other sources, and are known to increase the risk of heart disease and diabetes. "Even for somebody who's not trying to get pregnant, it is a very good idea to stay away from them," Chavarro told Reuters Health.

Trans fats can interfere with the activity of a cell receptor involved in inflammation, glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity, Chavarro and his team note in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. Drugs that activate the receptor have been shown to improve fertility in women with a condition known as polycystic ovary syndrome.

To investigate how trans fat consumption might affect fertility, the researchers analyzed data from 18,555 healthy women participating in the Nurses' Health Study. All were married and trying to get pregnant between 1991 and 1999.

For every 2 percent increase in the amount of calories a woman got from trans fats instead of carbohydrates, the researchers found, her risk of infertility increased by 73 percent. The risk rose by 79 percent for every 2 percent of energy in trans fats if they replaced omega-6 polyunsaturated fats. And for every 2 percent of calories derived from trans fats instead of monounsaturated fats, the risk of infertility more than doubled.

For a woman eating 1,800 calories a day, 2 percent of energy intake in trans fats equals 4 grams, Chavarro noted. "It's not very hard to get 4 grams of trans fatty acids every day," he said. "It's really a small amount of trans fatty acids that we observe having a significant effect on infertility."

The Food and Drug Administration now requires manufacturers to state on their label if a food contains a half gram of trans fat per serving or more, Chavarro noted, but foods with less than a half gram are allowed to claim that they have zero grams of trans fat. To cut trans fats out of the diet completely, he added, people should avoid all foods that list hydrogenated or partially hydrogenated oils in their ingredients.
I have seen studies on PubMed and trans fat consumption having negative effects on the developing fetus. So this new data is not surprising either.
Now that trans fats are being advertised people are getting the message.
It is really imperative to get them out of your diet.
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